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自考英语历年真题--选择题

来源:https://www.jkwedu.cn     2020-04-06
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Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A,B,C, and D.Choose the One answer that best completes the sentence.Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

1. (   )means the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.

A. Creativity

B. Duality

C. Arbitrariness

D. Displacement

【答案】B
【解析】Duality(二重性)指语言拥有两层结构的这种特性,底层结构是上层结构的组成成分。且每层都有自身的组合规则。A为创造性,C为任意性,D为移位性。

2. (   )distinguishes the linguistic competence of the speaker and the actual phenomena or data of linguistics as langue and parole.

A. Chomsky

B. Saussure

C. Gilman

D. Brown

【答案】B
【解析】Saussure(索绪尔)将说话者的语言能力和语言的实际现象或语料区分为语言和言语。chomsky主要研究生成语言学,而Gilman和Brown都是社会语言学家。

3. (   )is the study of the characteristics of language varieties, the characteristics of their functions and the characteristics of their speakers as these three constantly interact and change within a speech community.

A. Psycholinguistics

B. Sociolinguistics

C.Anthropological linguistics

D.Computational linguistics

【答案】B
【解析】Sociolinguistics(社会语言学)包括语言的社会功能和语言使用者的社会特征,它研究语言变体的特征、它们的功能特征、讲话者的特征以及这三者如何在言语团体中持续地相互作用和变化。A为心理语言学,C为人类语言学,D为计算机语言学。

4.The words such as "smog" and "brunch" are called (   )。

A. abbreviation

B. acronym

C. back-formation

D. blending

【答案】D
【解析】smog是由smoke的前半部分和fog的后半部分混合在一起构成的,brunch是由breakfast和lunch混合在一起构成的,这种构词法叫blending(混拼词)。abbreviation指缩写词,acronym指首字母缩写词,back—formation指逆构词。都不符合题意。

5.For example, the word" bead" originally means "prayer", but later it refers to "the prayer bead", and finally "small, ball-shaped piece of glass, metal or wood" .It is called (   )。

A.meaning shift

B.broadening

C.narrowing

D.borrowing

【答案】A
【解析】bead从最初的含义“祈祷”转变为“念珠”,到后来的“水珠、钢珠”,词义已不同于最初的含义,属于meaning shift(词义转移)。而B指词义扩大,C指词义缩小,D指借词,都不符合题意。


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